Predictability for Timing and Temperature in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip Platforms

Lothar Thiele, Lars Schor, Iuliana Bacivarov, and Hoeseok Yang.
ACM Transactions in Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), March 2013.
High computational performance in multiprocessor system-on-chips (MPSoCs) is constrained by the ever-increasing power densities in integrated circuits, so that nowadays MPSoCs face various thermal issues. For instance, high chip temperatures may lead to long-term reliability concerns and short-term functional errors. Therefore, the new challenge in designing embedded real-time MPSoCs is to guarantee the nal performance and correct function of the system, considering both functional and non-functional properties. One way to achieve this is by ruling out mapping alternatives that do not fulfill requirements on performance or peak temperature already in early design stages. In this article, we propose a thermal-aware optimization framework for mapping realtime applications onto MPSoC platforms. The performance and temperature of mapping candidates are evaluated by formal temporal and thermal analysis models. To this end, analysis models are automatically generated during design space exploration, based on the same specifications as used for software synthesis. The analysis models are automatically calibrated with performance data reflecting the execution of the system on the target platform. The data is automatically obtained prior to design space exploration based on a set of benchmark mappings. Case studies show that the performance and temperature requirements are often conflicting goals and optimizing them together leads to major benefits in terms of a guaranteed and predictable high performance.